(2009). While some non-community water supply systems report withdrawals, those falling below the 100,000 GPD threshold are not required to report. Apply to # LKYSPP to learn from the best: https://lkyspp.sg/3nMvA3A See More Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy Source: Hutson et al., 2004 and Solley, Pierce & Perlman, 1998. Hutson, S.S., Barber, N.L., Kenny, J.F., Linsey, K.S., Lumia, D.S, & Maupin, M.A. (2009). The MDEQ reported water withdrawals in 2004 for four broad categories: public supply, irrigation, industrial use and thermoelectric power generation. 1 The most recent U.S. Census estimate of Michigan’s 2004 population, reported in 2008, was 10,090,280 (U.S. Census, 2009). Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Almost 18 percent came from inland lakes and streams (MDEQ, n.d. 3). The model, developed by the MDEQ, the MDA and Michigan State University (MSU), uses county-level data from the U.S. Census of Agriculture for irrigated farms greater than 14 acres, and local weather and soils data (MDEQ, 2006). MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. In 2018, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy's External Affairs and Marketing team Social Media team launched a Facebook Chatbot named Aranda. Maintaining accurate information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Table 3. The Great Lakes–St. Equating water withdrawals with water use is misleading when not all water withdrawn reaches its intended user. In 2000, according to the USGS report, Michigan was second only to California in the number of residents relying upon private wells in the nation (Hutson et al., 2004)4. However, irrigation has the highest consumptive-use coefficient (90 percent) and, as a result, is the sector that results in the largest total consumptive use. The actual number of facilities withdrawing water directly from the Great Lakes is relatively small; most of the water taken from the Great Lakes is used by a few thermoelectric power plants. Retrieved from www.deq.state.mi.us/ documents/deq-wd-wurp-report04.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). We first clarify how the terms water use and water withdrawal are used in Michigan’s Water Use Reporting Program and by other entities that compile and report water-use information. Groundwater supplied most irrigation for both agriculture and golf courses (64 percent); inland lakes and streams provided almost 34 percent of irrigation water. Singapore 259772. i. Telephone: +65 6601 6254 (Graduate Programmes) +65 6601 5503 (Executive Education) Email: decb64_bGt5c3BwQG51cy5lZHUuc2c=_decb64 (General enquiries or feedback) 454K likes. During that year, these water users together withdrew more than 10,948 million gallons of water per day. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. However, the USGS estimates withdrawals for livestock uses in Michigan at 84.9 million GPD for 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009). Total withdrawals for irrigation were only about three percent of thermoelectric withdrawals. National University of Singapore. (2007). Major outdoor uses include watering lawns and gardens. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. Withdrawals for livestock production, including aquaculture, are also not reported if they fall below the 100,000 GPD threshold. However, this does not mean that 1,121,066 private residential wells were used in 1990, since the Census included in this count those cases where up to four separate housing units were using the same well (U.S. Census, 1990). Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). . Sun Xi, a 1980s China-born alumnus of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore, is an independent commentary writer based in Singapore. Drew Thompson Visiting Senior Research Fellow at National University of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy and Senior Research Scientist at CNA Corporation. Kenny, J.F., Barber, N.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., Lovelace, J.K., & Maupin, M.A. We then describe the various types of water use that are tracked. On the other hand, this underestimation may be offset, at least in part, by the fact that the water-use study from which the per capitause coefficient was derived reported leakages in household plumbing for the sample used in the study of as much as 10 percent of water withdrawn; one cannot automatically assume that homeowners with private wells have plumbing that is as leaky as the public water supply users included in the study. In some cases, a power plant may use a combination of cooling systems for the same generating unit” (MDEQ, n.d. 4). In particular, estimates of consumptive use (defined in Box 1) convey how much of the water withdrawn is returned to its source and how much is removed to another watershed. Thus, much of the water used in schools, churches, restaurants, motels and campgrounds is not accounted for. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. Also, creating and maintaining an inventory of water withdrawals and water uses is an important part of complying with the Great Lakes–St. “An open cooling system, such as once-through cooling, withdraws water continuously from a natural water body, circulates the water through condensers in the plant once to remove waste heat, then discharges the water back into a receiving water body. Their summary provided the values reported in Table 1. Telephone: +65 6601 6254 (Graduate Programmes) +65 6601 5503 (Executive Education) Email: decb64_bGt5c3BwQG51cy5lZHUuc2c=_decb64 (General enquiries or feedback) Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, สิงคโปร์. The Hinrich Foundation Sustainable Trade Index 2020, commissioned to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), examines the role of sustainable trade for … Even before the changes to Michigan’s water law, the MDEQ compiled and reported water withdrawals by thermoelectric power plants, self-supplied industries, irrigators and public water supply systems. In general, a water user withdrawing surface or ground water is not required to report withdrawals if withdrawal capacity is less than 100,000 GPD averaged over any consecutive 30-day period. Total water withdrawn for public supply uses was 1,144.3 MGD (Table 2) or about 10.2 percent of total water withdrawn by all sectors. Institute of Water Policy - Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. While the NWUIP has established a standard procedure for states to use in reporting water use, wide variability exists among the states across user definitions, reporting requirements and estimation methods. In addition, many domestic wells supply water for livestock-related purposes in addition to indoor and outdoor household uses. Solley, W.B., Pierce, R.R., & Perlman, H.A. Then, those coefficients are extrapolated to similar uses in other locations. The MDEQ provides the water withdrawal data collected to the USGS National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP) and to the Great Lakes Commission for its annual Great Lakes Regional Water Use Database. Examples of indoor uses are drinking water, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and flushing toilets. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact (the Compact). 444K likes. (2009). Of the total 290.3 MGD of water withdrawn for irrigation use in 2004, 88 percent was for agriculture. Because domestic users are not required to report withdrawals in Michigan, the USGS uses data on public supply withdrawals and population to estimate domestic use for Michigan. Retrieved from www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7- 135-3313_3675_3692-9395--,00.html. Irrigation water withdrawals were estimated based on the 452,800 irrigated acres and 1,568 irrigators in Michigan reported in the 2002 Census of Agriculture (MDEQ, n.d. 1). Water use in areas where private domestic wells predominate may include more withdrawals for watering lawn and flower gardens, washing automobiles and filling swimming pools than are observed in metropolitan areas. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. For the report of 2004 water withdrawals, however, the MDEQ reported agricultural irrigation withdrawals estimated using a computer model rather than actual reported withdrawals. Industrial water use refers to self-supplied withdrawals of water for industrial processing, washing, cooling and other purposes. 443K likes. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. (1990). U.S. Census. While thermoelectric power accounted for the largest withdrawals, that sector has the smallest consumptive-use coefficient (2 percent) and thus, represents the second largest consumptive use. This data is presented on a percentage of total basis in Figures 1 and 2. A non-community public water supply system provides water for drinking or household purposes to 25 or more persons at least 60 days per year or has 15 or more service connections.3 Examples include schools, restaurants, motels, campgrounds andchurches that have their own wells. Water withdrawals are reported by public water suppliers to the MDEQ either monthlyor annually (depending upon size) along with the water quality information required by Michigan’s Safe Drinking Water Act. The USGS adds estimates for categories of users not reported by the states and publishes its report every five years as part of the National Water Use Information Program. (However, the USGS estimates withdrawals for livestock production for its periodic report using estimated use coefficients.). Retrieved from www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpAgriculture2004.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). For example, non-community public water supply systems (below the capacity threshold) are not required to report withdrawals. Moderator: The MDEQ reported that public water suppliers supported 7.2 million persons in 2004 (MDEQ, 2006). This means that, besides domestic users, a number of other types of water uses in Michigan are not reported and, as a result, not included in Michigan’s annual water withdrawal summaries. Retrieved from www.census.gov/popest/states/NSTann-est.html, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). - Prof. Teo Yik Ying, Dean, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, NUS - Prof. Tikki Pangestu, Visiting Professor, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, NUS - Assoc. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpAgriculture2004.pdf, www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpIndustrial04.pdf, www.census.gov/popest/states/NSTann-est.html, www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3675_3692-9395--,00.html. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. The range of values reported for irrigation reflectsdifferences in irrigation technology (for example, flood, sprinkler or drip irrigation) and differences in types of plants being watered. (2002). Because data on return flows and conveyance losses is problematic, consumptive use is generally estimated with consumptive-use coefficients. With one exception, the data provided in this section are from the Water Withdrawals for Major Water Uses in Michigan 2004 report (MDEQ, 2006) and associated user-specific reports (MDEQ, n.d. 1, n.d. 2, n.d. 3, n.d. 4). It's an incredible honour for us to announce that our MPA alumnus, Ibrahim Shaheeb, has won over 58 votes from the # parliament Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. But the number of residents served by public water supplies is based on the number of residential connections reported by public water systems multiplied by an estimate of persons per household. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Train with leading public policy experts to stay ahead of such decisions. Total water use in Michigan during 2004 was 11,198.6 MGD or almost 4.1 trillion total gallons for the year. This represents about a five percent increase from the 2000 USGS estimate of 239 MGD withdrawn by domestic users (an estimated 2.8 million people relying upon private wells). - Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Council adopted a set of interim reporting protocols to help ensure that all Great Lakes states apply a common and consistent process for collecting water withdrawal information.6 The protocol specifies the water-use sectors for which withdrawal data will be reported and the information to be collected. (1998). Welcome to the noncommunity water supply site. Ground water accounts for just less than 22 percent of withdrawals for public supply; the remaining 1.5 percent is from inland lakes and streams. Water withdrawals by major user categories in Michigan, 2004, million gallons per day. (n.d. 2). Domestic use refers to fresh water withdrawals from private household wells for indoor and outdoor uses. 444K likes. Prof. Joanne Yoong, Senior Economist & Director, Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California. Singapore 259772. i. The distinction is important because estimates of water demand for certain uses may be inaccurate if they are generated using data on water withdrawn and distributed by public water supplies rather than water actually used by those being served. National University of Singapore. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation and American Water Works Association. The large range of consumptiveuse coefficient values for livestock reflects the large number of animal species included and substantial differences in how water is used for different species and different production practices. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy Part of the National University of Singapore, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (LKY School) was established in 2004 with the mission of educating and inspiring current and future generations of leaders to raise the standards of governance in Asia. The exception is domestic water withdrawals. National University of Singapore. The MDEQ does not collect or report information about domestic water use. Retrieved from www. All of these issues increase the uncertainty in estimates of domestic withdrawals and in estimates of total water withdrawals. These coefficients indicate “the percentage of water removed from the immediate environment by evaporation, transpiration, incorporation into products or crops, or consumption by humans or livestock” (Shaffer & Runkle, 2007). 5 The 1990 Census of Population and Housing reported that 1,121,066 housing units (including both occupied and vacant) received water from private wells. Shaffer and Runkle completed a comprehensive review of consumptive-use coefficients reported in the literature for the Great Lakes Basin and climatically similar areas. For several reasons, estimations of domestic withdrawals may be inaccurate. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2000. The most recent year for which information for all categories was released was 2004. Irrigation use is fresh water applied by an irrigation system to assist in the growing of crops and pastures or to maintain vegetative growth on recreational lands such as golf courses. Distinguishing between withdrawal and use may also be important for understanding the impact of withdrawals on hydrologic systems. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapur. Saichon Seedang was formerly a visiting assistant professor with the Guyer-Seevers Program in Natural Resource Conservation; Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies; Michigan State University and is now a senior research fellow, Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy; National University of Singapore. (U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1344). Retrieved from www. The distinction between withdrawals and use is significant in some cases, but that distinction is often lost when the terms are used. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. The 1990 Census of Population and Housing included information on the number of households relying upon private wells5 , but that data series was discontinued with the 2000 Census. A closed system, such as a cooling pond, cooling tower, or radiator heat exchanger,recycles the same cooling water more than once, requiring only periodic withdrawals to replace water losses. (2004). We summarize the methods used to compile water-use information and discuss ways in which actual water withdrawals may be over or under reported. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) maintains this inventory for specific categories of water users through its Water Use Reporting Program. Author: The MDEQ report of 2004 water withdrawals describes three types of cooling systems: open, closed and combination. Finally, we present water withdrawal data for Michigan for 2004. However, whether or not the existing approaches used for measuring or estimating water withdrawals in Michigan will change is unclear. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact requires Great Lakes states to gather and share information on water withdrawals. Domestic withdrawals are also not reported, but domestic uses are estimated by the USGS using the approach described earlier. Compliance with this Compactrelated activity would mean that withdrawals by more types of water users would be compiled and reported for Michigan, although only for those users withdrawing more than 100,000 GPD. Coefficients are calculated periodically based on data collected by a few self-supplied users who have measured withdrawals and return flows or by public supply facilities that have measured and/or estimated deliveries, releases to sewage-treatment facilities, leakages, in-flows and return flows. In 2004, industries in primary metals, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and mines and quarries sectors accounted for the majority of self-supplied industrial users with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 GPD (MDEQ, n.d. 3). National Research Council (NRC) Committee on U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Research. For example, the USGS defines water use as water withdrawn or diverted from surface water and ground water sources (Hutson et al., 2004). Public water supply is delivered to community users for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey. The MDEQ collects water withdrawal information from all public water suppliers and from self-supplied users with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 gallons per day (GPD) over any consecutive 30-day period. Although most industries in Michigan receive water from public suppliers, there are some industrial self-supplied facilities. Applying the median values of consumptive-use coefficients shown in Table 1 to total withdrawals, total consumptive use by sector was estimated for 2004 withdrawals (Table 3). Which information for all categories was released was 2004 of 628.8 MGD, almost 6 percent thermoelectric... ( USEPA ) use refers to fresh water withdrawals and water for parks and other purposes generally estimated consumptive-use... N.D. 2 ) Survey water Resources Research accounted for the water used in during... 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